Instructions for the examination:
– Do not forget to write the number of the question you are answering at the beginning of each answer.
– The length for each answer should be between 250 and 500 words (about a one to two double-spaced typed pages) for each question. Each question carries the same weight.
(D) Graduate students should answer four out of the five of the questions below. Undergraduate students should answer three questions out of the five. If they would like, undergraduates can try to answer a fourth question for extra credit.
Graduate students: Choose ONLY four questions form the following five questions (If you choose to do 5 that is extra credit which I want)
(1) What was the Whitening movement in Brazil? How did it affect Japanese immigration to Brazil and the Japanese Brazilian community structure?
(2) What was the Kachi-gumi and Make-gumi conflict in Brazil after World War II? Who did it involve? What was the result? And what is the social significance of this conflict in the current Japanese Brazilian community?
(3) It is often said that the dekasegi returnee migratory social phenomena of early 1990s accelerated Japanese Brazilian acculturation into mainstream Brazilian society. Please explain what the dekasegi movement was all about, and explain why it accelerated the assimilation of Japanese Brazilians.
(4) Okinawa has been one of the main prefectures in Japan that sent emigrants abroad. And often Okinawan people have created a separate Japanese diaspora community from that of people from mainland Japan. One of the most striking cases is the post-war Bolivian Japanese living in Bolivia. There, there are at least two distinguishable Okinawan Japanese diaspora communities: one in La Paz, and one in San Juan in Santa Cruz. Explain how these two communities were established, and how they developed in separate ways. Explain why they have not integrated into one greater community even though both were originally constructed by ancestors of Japanese citizens who left Japan around the same time. How do they identify themselves today?
(5) Why has the younger generations of Japanese not asked for redress or compensation from the Japanese government for its neglect in bringing Japanese POWs back from Siberia and Central Asia immediately after World War II? Note that was unlike the younger generations of Japanese American who argued—successfully, though belatedly—for redress from the United States government for World War II internment. Why are these situations different? Why was one group successful and the other, not?