respond to two discussion post 50 100 words

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Respond in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Please view the example before you start!
Please include at least one references in the response.

Post 1: Write a 50-100 words response to the post below:
General Contact Hypothesis

The General Contact Hypothesis posits that intergroup conflict resulting from prejudices or discrimination can be reduced by bringing members of opposing groups together under certain conditions (Brewer, 2000). Those conditions include: equal status for the groups within the situation, and a common goal that requires cooperation between groups and allows for a development of friendship to occur (Binder, Zagefka, Brown, Funke, Kessler, Mummendey, Maquil, Demoulin, & Leyens, 2009). Binder et al (2009) discuss that when people harbor deep prejudices, they are likely to avoid contact, but if they are unable to avoid it, they will instead make sure that it remains at a very superficial level making the intergroup contact ineffective. To utilize the contact effectively, the groups would need to be tasked with a common goal where each group is necessary for the successful achievement of that goal (Gaertner, Dovidio, Banker, Houlette, Johnson, & McGlynn, 2000). Having to work together, needing each other, promotes deeper level relationship growth and a reduction in prejudice.

There are three strategies that fall in line with this hypothesis that could be used to mediate between these two groups and promote reconciliation. The first is decategorization which basically suggests that members of each group would need to view themselves as individuals rather than group members, and then allow themselves to have deeper interactions with each other in order to learn more and as a result undermine the group memberships, reducing prejudice (Gaertner, et al., 2000). In this scenario this would entail separating members for more individual one-on-one interaction where they are required to engage in deeper discussions. The second strategy is through recategorization. This is in contrast to decategorization where, rather than eliminate group membership, redefine the groups in such a way that outgroup members become ingroup members according to the different group makeup (Gaertner, et al., 2000). For example, rather than groups based on race, they could reidentify with groups based on gender instead and come to a common ground within the new group membership. A third strategy to attempt would be mutual differentiation which is what I was suggesting previously. This requires a common goal and a division of responsibility that makes both groups indispensable in the hopes that they will recognize the strengths and contributions of the other group, seeing them in a new and positive light that reduces prejudices and builds relationships (Gaertner, et al., 2000).

References

Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S., Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843–856.

Brewer, M. B. (2000). Reducing prejudice through cross-categorization: Effects of multiple social identities. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 165–183). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Banker, B. S., Houlette, M., Johnson, K. M., & McGlynn, E. A. (2000). Reducing intergroup conflict: From superordinate goals to decategorization, recategorization, and mutual differentiation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 98–114.

Post 2: Write a 50-100 words response to the post below:

Social Categorization

Categorization is fundamental to human cognition because it serves a basic epistemic function: organizing and structuring our knowledge about the world. Social categorization is the natural cognitive process by which we place individuals into social group’s. one example of social categorization would be the Black male athlete As (Whitley, 1999)point out, Black male athletes are often believed to be more athletic, yet less intelligent, than their White male counterparts. These beliefs persist despite a number of high-profile examples to the contrary. Sadly, such beliefs often influence how these athletes are treated by others and how they view themselves and their own capabilities. Whether or not you agree with a stereotype, stereotypes are generally well-known within in a given culture (Whitley, 1999) . Some people hold attitude that black people possess certain traits that are acquired through genetic andor environmental factors that allow them to excel over other races in athletic competition. Whites are more likely to hold these views; however, some blacks and other racial affiliations do as well.

One of the cognitive manipulations I would use is decategorization. Strategies for reducing prejudice may be directed at the traditional, intentional form of prejudice or at more subtle and perhaps less conscious contemporary forms (Samuel L., et al., 2000). Whereas the traditional form of prejudice may be reduced by direct educational and attitude change techniques, contemporary forms may require alternative strategies oriented toward the individual or involving intergroup contact. Individual oriented techniques can involve leading people who possess contemporary prejudices to discover inconsistencies among their self-images, values, and behaviors; such inconsistencies can arouse negative emotional states, which motivate the development of more favorable attitudes. one strategy that can be used to encourage cognitive manipulations in order to reduce social categorization would be to properly educate both groups on each other history (Samuel L., et al., 2000). With this it will allow both groups to get a different perspective on how stereotypes make each other feel. This can also help the groups identify and similarities they might have.

Whitley, R. L. (1999). Those “dumb jocks” are at it again: A comparison of the educational performances of athletes and nonathletes in North Carolina high schools from 1993 through 1996. The High School Journal, 82(4), 223–233. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.or…

Samuel L., G., John F., D., Brenda S., B., Missy, H., Kelly M., J., & Elizabeth A., M. (2000). Reducing Intergroup Conflict: From Superordinate Goals to Decategorization, Recategorization, and Mutual Differentiation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, (1), 98. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/108…

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