Annotated Bibliography paper help

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The annotated bibliography must include a minimum of 5 citations from the primary scientific literature. Your annotated bibliography must include complete, properly formatted citations and a description of the article, including how it relates to your topic statement. At least 2 citations should address the evolutionary concept (e.g., review articles, theoretical papers, history, or perspectives) and at least 2 should be for evidence or examples supporting the topic. One citation may be general background, such as natural history, on the focal species or system. Include your Topic Statement at the top of the Annotated Bibliography assignment.The paper have to clearly describes the article, including hypotheses, methods, results, and conclusions. • Relevance to topic statement is well supported

My topic statement: Tail regeneration and the evolution of tongue in the lungless Plethodontid Salamander (Plethodontidae)

Keywords: Natural selection, Evolution of tongue, Plethodontis Salamander

Example : Vestigial wings and the evolution of flightlessness in Galapagos Island cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi)

Keywords: Vestigiality, flightlessness, Galapagos Island cormorants

McNab, B.K., 1994. Energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness in birds. The American Naturalist, 144(4), pp.628-642. https://doi.org/10.1086/285697 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

The author examined the hypothesis that energy conservation contributes to the evolution of flightlessness in birds by comparing the factors correlated with basal metabolic rate in flighted and flightless rails and ducks. They found support for their hypothesis in flightless birds, except penguins, which use their wings for locomotion in water. This paper suggests that a lack of selective pressure for flight (lack of predators) combined with a high metabolic demand to maintain flight capability, contributes to vestigiality (reduction of wings and pectoral muscles) in environments where resources are limited.

Detail for the sources

  • You will find one source that has general background, such as natural history, on the focal species or system
  • You choose 2 citations should address the evolutionary concept by following these sources:

a . Tail Autotomy

Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes ( focus on the tail autotomy of discussion part)

https://www.pnas.org/content/101/38/13820

b. tongue evolution

Tongue Evolution in the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontid. II Function and Evolutionary

See file question2b in the attachment.

  • You find at least 2 sources should be for evidence or examples supporting the topic. By following these sources
  • a. Tail generation :

“Tail Development and Regeneration Throughout the Life Cycle of the Four-Toed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/%2…

Evidence of tail autotomy in the European Plethontid Hydromantes”

See file 3a

b. Tongues evolution

Extremely high power tongue projection in the Plethodontid Salamander”

See file 3b-1

“Metamorphoris and evolution of feeding behavior in salamander”

See file 3b-3

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