The final essay must have a title, a paragraph for the original introduction, at least one paragraph or more in the body, and one paragraph for the original summary. Each of the names must be in bold and underlined when requested (as a blank). The final essay should be in your own words, but you must include all of the names requested in the article below. If your plagiarism checker score is above 50%, please redo or loss an extra -2 points.
All of the following are considered plagiarism:
- turning in someone else’s work as your own
- copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
- failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
- giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
- changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
- copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (“fair use” rules)
Instructions for extra credit:
Type a one or more page essay using the following information. Notice that many of the blanked out names include both the first name and last name while others have only the middle name and last name blanked out. Some other blanks only need the last name to complete the assignment. To earn full credit, 1/2 points per blank, each name is to be type in bold font and underlined. If all of the names are correct, then you will earn ten of ten points on your final grade only if you have a title (-1 if not there), original introduction (-2 if not there), body (-2 if not there), and original summary (-2 if not there). Remember, the paper must be typed, and it must be presented as an essay.
In ancient times, students would learn the theory of the Ogdoad concerning the “primordial forces” from which all was formed. Later, around 460 BC, the father of medicine, Hippocrates, stated “Heat [was] a quantity which functions to animate, derives from an internal fire located in the left ventricle.” The use of fire was therefore the first theory of heat, and it was hot.
Modern Philosophy begins with René _______ (1596–1650). He believed that the total “quantity of motion” in the universe is conserved, where the quantity of motion is understood as the product of size and speed. The conservation laws of kinetic energy and momentum will eventually become the driving forces to understanding heat and work.
The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world’s first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert _______ had learned of Guericke’s designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump. This skeptical chemist inspired people to find the elements. And heat was first on the list; first stated in 1667 by Johann Joachim ________, is a defunct scientific theory which does just this when it was postulated the existence of a fire-like element called “phlogiston,” contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion existed.
The next job was to find the mass of the elements. In about 1750, Joseph _______ developed the analytical balance based on a light-weight beam balanced on a wedge-shaped fulcrum. He then went on to develop the fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat in 1761 at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Later, the caloric theory was introduced by Antoine __________. He developed the explanation of combustion in terms of oxygen in the 1770s. Since heat was a material substance in caloric theory, and therefore could neither be created nor destroyed, conservation of heat was a central assumption. The component later to be called nitrogen and oxygen where first called Foul Air (“verdorbene Luft”) and Fire Air (“ Feuerluft”) by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm ____________ around 1775.
1798 Count ___________ (Benjamin Thompson) began the quantitative study of the conversion of work into heat by means of his famous cannon-boring experiments.
1799 Sir Humphry _______ studied the conversion of work into heat by means of his ice-rubbing experiments.
1824 _______ ________ published his famous thesis ” Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire,” which includes the new concept of cycle and the principle that the reversible cyclic engine operating between two heat reservoirs depends only on the temperatures of the reservoirs and not on the working substance.
1842 Julius ______ ______ (1814 – 1878) postulated the principle of conservation of energy.
1847 Hermann _______ von ________ (1821 – 1894) formulated the principle of conservation of energy, independent of Mayer.
1843-1848 James _______ ________ laid the experimental foundation of the first law of thermodynamics by performing experiments to establish the equivalence of work and heat. We now honor this great scientist by using J to denote the mechanical equivalent of heat.
1848 Lord Kelvin defined an absolute temperature scale based on the Carnot cycle. Scottish physicist _______ _________ was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics when he stated in 1854.
1850 _________ J. Clausius was probably the first to see that there were two basic principles: the first and second laws of thermodynamics. He also introduced the concept of U, which we now call the internal energy.
The first thermodynamic textbook was written in 1859 by William Rankine, originally trained as a physicist and a civil and mechanical engineering professor at the University of Glasgow
1865 Clausius stated the first and second laws of thermodynamics
in two lines:
1. The energy of the universe is constant.
2. The entropy of the universe tends toward a maximum.
1875 Josiah Willard ______ published his monumental work ” On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances,” which extends thermodynamics in a general form to heterogeneous
systems and chemical reactions. This work includes the important concept of chemical potential.
1897 Max Planck stated the second law of thermodynamics in the following form: “It is impossible to construct an engine which, working in a complete cycle, will produce no effect other than the raising of a weight and the cooling of a heat reservoir.”
1909 Constantin Carathéodory published his structure of thermodynamics on a new axiomatic basis, which is entirely mathematical in form.
Today, we still think heat is hot.