Article Critique Be sure to cover the topics below in your critique. the article critique MUST be 4 pages excluding the cover and reference page, please. Identify and explain the author’s main ideas.

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Article Critique

Be sure to cover the topics below in your critique. the article critique MUST be 4 pages excluding the cover and reference page, please.

  • Identify and explain the author’s main ideas. Begin your critique of the article with an introduction that defines the subject of your critique and your point of view.
  • Based on the research in your chosen article, what is the one factor that has a direct and positive impact on knowledge retention, and why?
  • Describe the three-step process for training adaptation and delivery. Does the author cover this process in your article? If not, do you think the author’s method would benefit from including this process? Explain your rationale.
  • What is the importance of employee-driven content?
  • To appeal to adult learners, what do delivery methods need to include, and why?

Your article critique must be at least two pages in length and use at least two outside sources, one of which must be the article you are critiquing. Adhere to APA style when constructing this assignment, and use in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

Please use the article attached. Zero Plagiarism, zero.

Article Critique Be sure to cover the topics below in your critique. the article critique MUST be 4 pages excluding the cover and reference page, please. Identify and explain the author’s main ideas.
22 Professional Safety DECEMBER 2017 Scott P. Smith, M.S., CSP, is a global risk manager and trainer with a 20-year career working across five continents. He holds a B.S. in Environmental Science from Northern Michigan University, an M.S. in Industrial Hygiene from University of Massachusetts, Lowell, and is pursuing a doctorate in law and policy/interna- tional labor law at Northeastern University. Smith is a professional member of ASSE’s Greater Boston Chapter. IN BRIEF t Educating adult learners entails selecting the proper tools to train them with and integrating them into the learning process. tIntegrated training is achieved by including employees throughout the process, from develop- ment though validation and feedback. A dult learners do not want to be taught. They want to play a part and need to per- ceive training as something that will im- prove them as individuals. “Adult learners like to be in control of their training or at least play a role in it” (Dalto, 2015). They not only seek training in areas that are relevant to them, but find further motivation to learn and feel a greater sense of ac- complishment when they are involved in identify- ing training needs. A wide range of training modalities can be used, including in-person classroom sessions, virtual live sessions and self-paced e-learning. Many organi- zations embrace e-learning tools because of their ease of deployment, lower costs and increased learner convenience. “E-learning can be defined as the use of computer network technology, primarily over an intranet or through the Internet, to deliver in- formation and instruction to individuals (in our case, employees)” (Welsh, Wan- berg, Brown, et al., 2003). Simulation-based training has been a staple in industries such as aviation and nuclear energy (Jha, Duncan & Bates, 2001). Virtual-reality (VR)-based sys- tems are also becoming more common. “VR has been recognized as having rel- evance for training in a wide range of in- dustries including construction, medical and space exploration” (Squelch, 2001). While all these systems are successful in some ways, the literature does not definitively indicate which training modality is best. That said, Burke and colleagues identify one factor that has a direct and positive impact on knowledge retention: en- gaging the employee in the training (Burke, Sarpy, Smith-Crowe, et al., 2006). “Our findings indicate that the most engaging methods of safety training are, on average, three times more effective than the least engaging methods in promoting knowledge and skill acquisition” (Burke, et al., 2006). Educat- ing adult learners entails selecting the proper tools and integrating employees themselves into the learning process. Needs Assessment, Delivery & Validation OSH trainers must continuously adapt training content and training delivery. Doing so effectively involves a three-step process (Table 1, p. 24). The first step is to conduct a needs assessment. Train- ing needs include codified requirements and the perceived training needs of employees. By engag- ing employees in the needs assessment, training becomes more precise. Doing so also helps an or- ganization select a delivery system that best meets employees’ learning needs. The second step is to select a proper delivery style. For adult learners, this is critical. By choos- ing the proper tool to engage workers, employers help them stay more focused on training, which increases memory retention. Additionally, incor- porating site-specific visuals into training materi- als helps employees develop a clear idea of what is expected of them. As Flum, Siqueira, DeCaro, et al. (2010), explain, “The process of taking pictures and presenting them creates an ongoing discussion among workers and management regarding the need for change and for process improvements, and results in greater interest and activity regarding occupational health among workers.” Such a process engages people and generates dialogue among all employees, which ultimately leads to better training content. The final step involves two measures: 1) content retention as assessed using a short quiz or visual performance review; and 2) a feedback loop that provides management with a measure of train- ing effectiveness. The quiz is based on key train- ing goals, not simply an overview of concepts. The feedback loop involves watching employees perform tasks related to training to assess reten- tion. Data from these measures reveal remaining knowledge gaps and help management identify where improvements in training, delivery style or content, are needed. Employers must also assess whether workers believed the training was effec- tive. By integrating worker feedback into training design, training continually grows and improves. Key Factors of the Adult Learner To see value in training, adult learners must un- derstand why the training is important to them Effective Training Methods 1 4 1 1 Employee Training Peer-Reviewed Adult Learners DECEMBER 2017 Professional Safety 23 and how completing it will increase their abilities. As Dalto (2015) explains, “Adult learners want training to be relevant to their daily lives and to be focused on completing specific tasks.” It is also important to clearly communicate purpose. “If a health and safety program’s purpose is unclear or appears to benefit the company only, many work- ers will not take the subject matter seriously. The audience must understand how the training direct- ly relates to their daily personal lives” (Potts, 2016). To close this gap, the delivery system must be concise and state definitively what the training will do for workers as individuals. By asking employees during training development what they wish they had been taught when they started, training ma- terials grow to meet the demands of longer-term workers as well as younger workers who may have less-developed competencies. The term employee- driven content is used to define this functional need. In general terms, adult learners are self-direct- ed; have years of experience and training; are goal oriented; learn better when properly motivated; and want to feel respected. They do not want to sit in a room and merely listen. “Most programs are developed based on the naive assumption that safety knowledge can easily be transferred through conventional classroom instructional methods” (Albert & Hallowel, 2013). Adult learners want to be engaged, feel as though their time is being used wisely and believe the material is valuable to their skill set. Adult learners want to engage with an instructor who can answer their questions and be engaged by this instructor in a learner-centric dynamic (Albert & Hallowel, 2013). Adult learners prefer to be edu- cated by a topic expert, but also want to be trusted to read and learn on their own. While online training systems are available, these systems are prepackaged and not generally tailored to a specific work environment. When a worker cannot associate the material presented with his/her own work environment or lacks a sense of engagement in the material, the course loses value. “If sufficient attention is not given to implementation, e-learning will not be successful” (Welsh, et al., 2003). Some online training can be modified and adapted to an employer’s workplace. This helps bridge the gap with prepackaged train- ing but it can add cost, hinder annual updating and increase release time. MATJAZ SLANIC/ISTOCK/GETTY IMAGES PLUS Educating adult learners entails selecting the proper tools and integrating employees themselves into the learning process. 24 Professional Safety DECEMBER 2017 Bringing It All Together Employee-Driven Content Feedback from adult workers often centers around why they need to know what is being cov- ered in training. If this initial mental hurdle is not overcome, any training that follows may be ineffec- tive. An excellent way to address this concern is to integrate the learner into the training development process. By discussing training needs with employ- ee representatives during the needs assessment, an organization can develop training content that is more precise and site-specific. Stating clearly how training will affect employees with buy in from su- pervisors will further enhance the perceived value of the training. In many cases, employees are assigned read- ing materials or asked to complete online train- ing. While Welsh, et al. (2003), agree this can be an easier approach, employers must be careful to design it to engage students. Often, adult learners respond negatively to an hour’s worth of slides on a screen or online training delivered by a ma- chine. By providing training materials that clearly identify the expected outcomes and explain the importance of those outcomes to the individual, training transforms into a tool for self-advance- ment rather than simply a company requirement. It also helps to train employees in small, similar groups and provide materials for further review, as this review allows employees to discuss and review information on their own time (Figure 1). This gives the employee a sense of freedom in education and promotes self value. Employee Engagement Learners generally retain 10% of what is read, 20% of what is heard, 30% of what is seen, 50% of material from group discussion, 75% of what is learned through practice and 90% of what they say and do (Booth, 2007). Therefore, a trainer should keep train- ing materials to a few, concise pages to maintain focus on critical details. While the his- tory of lockout/tagout may interest a scholar, it of- fers little value to employees. As noted, integrating site photos into training materials adds value in the form of visible stim- uli (Flum, et al., 2010). Seeing a lockout tag in a presentation slide adds less value than seeing a lock and tag being properly affixed on a piece of equipment employees encounter each day (Figure 2). Incorporating photos gathered during inspec- tions also enhances training because such photos depict actual risks that employees may encounter in their workplace. This strengthens an employee’s retention and understanding because it helps the employee make associations between training and his/her job. Open Delivery Workers should be part of the process for sched- uling training and planning retraining. As Dalto (2015) explains, “By consulting with your employ- ees, you can create a training schedule that best fits their needs.” Often, employers schedule a weeks’ worth of training to occur once a year. This requires all employees to attend training at one time, which increases costs. Performing short, monthly single topic training sessions allows employees time to reflect on each topic. This approach also keeps safety in the forefront year round. Integrated Training & Validation Integrated training is achieved by including em- ployees throughout the process, from development through validation and feedback. By bringing em- ployees into the development cycle, they become part of the solution. By engaging employees in the training cycle, they feel part of the educational pro- cess. Integrating the training perspective of the af- fected employees/supervisors strengthens training effectiveness. Integrated training validation refers to the process of asking employees directly wheth- er they learned or developed better proficiency through the training and whether the training de- livered value. By listening to employees’ perspec- tives on the effectiveness of training, a trainer can continuously improve the training process. TABLE 1 Training Process Steps . ‘ . , ‘ + & ( / , # & ( 0 , # # # ( / ‘ # . , + * * + ( / , # ” ( 0 , # ) ! ( 0 ‘ . , $ ! 0 – # # % ( / , # # ( FIGURE 1 Example Learning Objectives ! DECEMBER 2017 Professional Safety 25 Conclusion OSH professionals have access to many train- ing tools and resources. However, the most valu- able tool are the employees who bring with them hands-on experience and a desire to learn. As Ben- jamin Franklin said, “Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” To- day’s OSH trainers must involve their adult em- ployees to improve their learning. PS References Aben, B., Stapert, S. & Blockland A. (2012). About the distinction between working memory and short- term memory. Frontiers Psychology, 3, 301. doi:10.3389/ fpsyg.2012.00301 Albert, A. & Hallowel, M.R. (2013). Revamping occupational safety and health training: Integrating an- dragogical principles for the adult learner. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 13 (3), 128-140. doi:10.5130/ajceb.v13i3.3178 Bates, R. (2004). A critical analysis of evaluation practice: The Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27 (3), 341-347. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2004.04.011 Booth, A. (2007). In search of the information literacy training half-life. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 24, 145-149. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2007.00707.x Burke, M.J., Salvador, R.O., Smith-Crowe, K., et al. (2011). The dread factor: How hazards and safety train- ing influence learning and performance. Journal of Ap- plied Psychological Association, 96 (1), 46-70. doi:10.1037/ a0021838 Burke, M., Sarpy, S.A., Smith-Crowe, K., et al. (2006). Relative effectiveness of worker safety and health train- ing methods. American Journal of Public Health, 96 (2), 315-324. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.059840 Bush, D. & Andrew, K. (2013). Integrating occupa- tional safety and health training into career technical education in construction. Retrieved from www.cpwr .com/publications/integrating-occupational-safety-and -health-training-career-technical-education Dalto, J. (2015, July). Adult learning principals for safety training. Retrieved from Articles/2015/07/01/Adult-Learning-Principles-for -Safety-Training.aspx Flum, M.R., Siqueira, C.E., DeCaro, A., et al. (2010). Photovoice in the workplace: A participatory method to give voice to workers to identify health and safety haz- ards and promote workplace change: A study of univer- sity custodians. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53 (11), 1150-1158. doi:10.1002/ajim.20873 Illeris, K. (2011). The fundamentals of workplace learn- ing: Understanding how people learn in working life. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. International Labor Organization (ILO). (2003). Global strategy on occupational safety and health. Re- trieved from —ed_protect/—protrav/—safework/documents/ policy/wcms_107535.pdf ILO. (2004). Recommendation concerning human resources development: Education, training and lifelong learning [Human Resources Development Recom- mendation, No. 195). Retrieved from normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100 _ILO_CODE:R195 Jha, A.K., Duncan, B.W. & Bates, D.W. (2001). Simulator-based training and patient safety. In R.M. Wachter (Ed.), Making healthcare safety: A critical analysis of patient safety practices. Retrieved from https://archive Kirkpatrick, J. & Kirkpatrick, W.K. (2009). The Kirk- patrick four levels: A fresh look after 50 years, 1959- 2009. Retrieved from Portals/0/Resources/Kirkpatrick%20Four%20Levels%20 white%20paper.pdf Merli, C. (2011, June). Effective training for adult learners. Professional Safety, 56 (6), 49-51. OSHA. (2010). Best practices for the development, delivery and evaluation of Susan Harwood training grants (OSHA Publication No. 3686-09 2010). Retrieved from OSHA. (2015). Resource for development and deliv- ery of training to workers (OSHA Publication No. 3824- 08 2015). Retrieved from osha3824.pdf O’Connor, T., Flynn, M., Weinstock, D., et al. (2014). Occupational safety and health and training for underserved populations. New Solutions, 24(1), 83-106. doi:10.2190/NS.24.1.d O’Lawrence, H. (2007). The influences of distance learning on adult learners. Techniques: Connecting Educa- tion and Careers, 81 (5), 47-49. Potts, J. (2016). Best practices for engaging workers in health and safety training. Occupational Health and Safety, 85 (5), 22-24. Squelch, A.P. (2001). Virtual reality for mine safety training in South Africa. The Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 10 (4), 209-216. Re- trieved from Welsh, E., Wanberg, C., Brown, K.G., et al. (2003). E-learning: Emerging uses, empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training Development, 7 (4), 245Ð258. doi:10.1046/j.1360-3736.2003.00184.x Using findings from OSH inspec- tions with photos of safety issues supports training by showing real- world risks from the employee’s actual workplace. FIGURE 2 Example of Inspection Findings Copyright ofProfessional Safetyisthe property ofAmerican SocietyofSafety Engineers and its content maynotbecopied oremailed tomultiple sitesorposted toalistserv without the copyright holder’sexpresswrittenpermission. However,usersmayprint, download, oremail articles forindividual use.

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