i did the whole assignment which is about policy analysis, My policy is academic freedom in higher education.
- – so my real concern is work on the theory.
- – the whole work I need in 2 pages or less
I will not upload my work. I just need. (Diffusion Theory, Muddling Theory) no summery , no introductions in the beginning. because I will add missing things to my work.
– My professor said that I did wrongely the theory section. he said â€œThe idea is to use the theory to critically analyze components of the policy, not how the policy was or can be adoptedâ€.
– so I understand my problem that he need to analyse the policy.
– I attached the file, I did not organize the file with page number, I organize it with topics. so aware about page numbers.
page (5, 194,44), for Diffusion Theory
page (168. 177) for Muddling Theory.
pages (241- 248) this chapter show how you analyze the policy; it gives you the steps.
pages (315, 316, 562, 563, 581-586) it gives you the idea how I want the implications
pages (331) you can get an idea how to make recommendations.
Diffusion is a gradual process by which an innovation is shared via specific channels among a particular social system (194). Consequently, some states end up adopting policies from other countries/states. The theory is divided into models. The first model is learning. States lean towards innovations which have been effective in other states. The policymakers identify one policy that has been efficacious and implement it in their system (Sabatier, 2014).
The second model is competing with each other. States adopt policies from other states in order to have a competitive edge over other states or to evade a disadvantage. For instance, it may be used by a state that wants its education system to be the better compared to other states (194).
The third model involves states adopting locally or nationally putative policies. This model is referred to coercive if the federal government gives state governments no choice and normative if state governments adopt policies because they are widely accepted by other states (195).
By applying the diffusion model; the academic freedom, civil rights and social issues policy can be borrowed from a state/country that has a well-structured higher education system. For instance, from the previously mentioned example, the University of Wisconsin can apply the framework of a state that has a successful academic freedom, civil rights and social issues policy to determine whether the topic should be taught or not (first model). By using the second mode; approach, the University can solve this issue by adopting a successful framework of the Academic freedom policy in order to evade their disadvantage. By applying the third model; University of Wisconsin can adopt an academic freedom policy that is widely being used in multiple States to solve this issue.
The Muddling Theory
Charles Lindblom postulated the Muddling Theory in 1959. The theory argued that bureaucracies use inadequate policy analysis, limited rationality and little or no theory when creating policies (Sabatier, 2014). Lindblom suggested a rational-comprehensive approach for policy formulation. According to this theory, the first step towards addressing a policy issue is by ranking the values and goals of the policy. Secondly, the policy makers should list all the possible outcomes of the policy and rank them depending on their significance to value contribution. Thirdly the policy makers should pinpoint and examine all the possible alternatives making sure that they put all the possible factors into consideration. Lastly, the policy makers select the alternative which they find to be the best in bringing the maximum value in terms of meeting the objectives that had been identified in the first step (168).
Using this theory, when formulating a policy on academic freedom, civil rights, and social issues, one has to list all the values that will be gained by this policy and its objectives. Secondly, all the possible outcomes as a result of the implementation of this policy should be ranked depending on their contribution towards value attainment. Thirdly, policy makers should research on other policies that can be used in the place of the academic freedom, civil rights and social issues policy. Lastly, if the academic freedom, civil rights, and social issues policy has the greatest value then, it can be adopted else, the alternative with the highest value will be adopted.
]You need to investigate this closer. The idea is to use the theory to critically analyze components of the policy, not how the policy was or can be adopted.